This book examines in detail the diagnostic approach to manic depressive (bipolar) illness, with special reference to the borderline zones with unipolar depression and schizoaffective disorder. Among other diagnostic issues considered are mixed episodes (often misdiagnosed by psychiatrists), rapid cycling, and the confusion with personality disorders. Within the context of diagnosis and understanding of the dynamics of bipolar disorder, temperament, character, and personality are all extensively discussed. Neurocognitive deficit and disability are covered, as are elements of evolutionary biology and behavior. With regard to treatment, the major focus is on evidence-based therapy, with reference to the results of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses; in addition, contemporary guidelines and future trends are examined. Careful consideration is also given to the psychosocial treatment approach and issues relating to societal and economic costs and burdens.